Structural Analysis and Petrography of High-Grade Gneisses and Associated Mafic/Ultramafic Dikes Around Salem, Southern India

Home » Journal of Geosciences Research (JGSR) » JGSR Contents » JGSR Vol. 9, No. 1 January 2024 » Structural Analysis and Petrography of High-Grade Gneisses and Associated Mafic/Ultramafic Dikes Around Salem, Southern India

Vinay V. Salve1,2 and Durga P. Mohanty1*

1Department of Geology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune-411007(MS), India 2Geological Survey of India, SU: Jharkhand, ER, Ranchi-830002(JH), India.

(*Corresponding Author, E-mail:


Southern Granulite Terrane (SGT) of India preserves extensive high-grade granulite facies rocks of Archaean and Proterozoic age. The SGT is divided into number of blocks by several suture/shear zone. Structural investigations on the basement gneisses and younger mafic/ultramafic dikes have been carried out within the Salem block which is part of Northern Granulite Block (NGB), north of the Cauvery Suture Zone (CSZ). The present work emphasizes various scale fold styles and other structural patterns of the area, which includes regionally metamorphosed high-grade rocks as basement for the multiple ultramafic intrusions to the north of Cauvery Suture Zone (CSZ) which highlights the finite strain geometry, complex deformation pattern and high-grade metamorphism. Structural map of the study area is prepared showing two generations of folding, namely F1 whose axial trend is NE-SW, subparallel with general trendof gneissic foliation and are tight isoclinal folds while F2 which are open folds with axial trend NW-SE.E-W structural cross section across the foliation planes, characterizes antiformal and synformal fold patterns of the basement due to varying dip directions which also reflects type-3 interference pattern of folding. Mesoscopic scale shear zones of dextral kinematics in response to E-W collision during Paleo-Meso Archean time, delta type porphyroclasts, S-C fabrics with the dextral movement of CSZ system, Riedel shear, thrust imbricates implying duplex structures, rotation of mafic boudins along shear zones are the most prominent ductile structural features of this area. Brittle structures like different sets of cross cutting joints and faults indicate younger deformation as well.Petrography of major lithologies has classified them into amphibolite gneiss, migmatite gneiss, charnockites, granulites and mylonites as basement rocks to the younger pyroxenite intrusions. Typical textures like, perthite, granulose, reaction rims, sieve textures and microstructures like S-C fabrics, kink bands, rotated porphyroclasts, etc are observed within the basement rocks.Coarse grained textures with fractured porphyroclasts of garnets indicating the water interactions and retrogradations within the granulite facies rocks. Reaction rims observed in charnockites and granulites are indicative of retrogression during shearing. The coarse grained cummulate nature of pyroxenites neither represent deformation nor metamorphism.

Keywords: Southern Granulite Terrane, Salem, Structural Analysis, Mafic/Ultramafics, Dikes, Petrography

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